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In the sphere of Being the reference of one term to another is only implicit; in Essence on the contrary it is explicit. Only in, and by virtue of, this mere generality is it Nothing, something inexpressible, whereof the distinction from Nothing is a mere intention or meaning. (1) The Atomic philosophy forms a vital stage in the historical evolution of the Idea. It is tedious to expatiate in the contemplation of this infinite progression, because the same thing is constantly recurring. Measure, where quality and quantity are in one, is thus the completion of Being. If we take a closer look at what a limit implies, we see it involving a contradiction in itself, and thus evincing its dialectical nature. Thus Zeno, who first showed the contradiction native to motion, concluded that there is no motion; and the ancients, who recognised origin and decease, the two species of Becoming, as untrue categories, made use of the expression that the One or Absolute neither arises not perishes. Contributions. Hegel and the Becoming of Essence David Gray Carlson Professor of Law Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law In the Science of Logic, Hegel derives essence from being. This process of measure, which appears alternately as a mere change in quantity, and then as a sudden revulsion of quantity into quality, may be envisaged under the figure of a nodal (knotted) line. But next moment this is straightway forgotten; the finite, made a mere counterpart to the infinite, wholly separated from it, and rescued from annihilation, is conceived to be persistent in its independence. If we understand being as it is defined by reflection, all that we can say of it is that it is what is wholly identical and affirmative. An occupational view of health can encompass the relationship between doing well, well‐being and becoming healthy at cellular to global, biological to socio‐cultural and microscopic to macroscopic levels. Becoming, says Hegel, is “the unity of Being and Nothing.” It is, he says, “one idea.” Becoming is therefore the synthesis of Being and Nothing. And in the case of being, we are speaking of nothing concrete: for being is the utterly abstract. We say, Now, This time, and then we keep continually going forwards and backwards beyond this limit. This aspect of being is also what appears as quantity in our ordinary conceptions. It accordingly seems as if the diversity had been unduly put out of court and neglected. But really the moon, as a something, has its other implicit in it. At around the same time, Goethe was developing his colour theories in the Farbenlehre of 1810, and introduced similar principles of combination and complementation, symbolising, for Goethe, "the primordial relations which belong both to nature and vision". According to Hegel the essence of nature is process. The ancients saw plainly that the maxim, ‘From nothing comes nothing, from something something’, really abolishes Becoming: for what it comes from and what it becomes are one and the same. Hegel, however, in his Science of logic , did not think there was much hope for delineating a "meaning" of being, because being stripped of all predicates is simply nothing. Touched, so to speak, by the infinite, it would be annihilated. Still, this dynamic construction of matter, as it is termed, has the fault of taking for granted, instead of deducing, attraction and repulsion. The notion of Being, therefore, of which we sometimes speak, must mean Becoming; not the mere point of Being, which is empty Nothing, any more than Nothing, which is empty Being. of increase or diminution: it is naturally and necessarily a tendency to exceed itself. We have already referred to the qualitatively different states of aggregation water exhibits under increase or diminution of temperature. In Becoming the Being which is one with Nothing, and the Nothing which is one with Being, are only vanishing factors; they are and they are not. Becoming is the first concrete thought, and therefore the first notion: whereas Being and Nought are empty abstractions. Hegel distinguishes between the being of objects (being in itself) and the being of people . How precisely does this come about? But the mutual implication of the two, which makes what is true and concrete in them, would have to be wrested from the obscurity and confusion in which they were left even in Kant’s Metaphysical Rudiments of Natural Science. Being, therefore, must be the first category. to be an other, it follows that something in its passage into other only joins with itself. Being must necessarily be the first category because, without being, nothing else could exist. In the history of philosophy, this stage of the logical Idea finds its analogue in the system of Heraclitus. Hegel provides the most extensive, general account of his dialecticalmethod in Part I of his Encyclopaedia of PhilosophicalSciences, which is often called the Encyclopaedia Logic[EL]. In its beginning, the thing is not yet, but it is more than merely nothing, for its Being is already in the beginning. For that matter indeed, the teaching of philosophy is precisely what frees man from the endless crowd of finite aims and intentions, by making him so insensible to them that their existence or non-existence is to him a matter of indifference. The being of the finite is made an absolute being, and by this dualism gets independence and stability. The first problem discussed on this blog and arguably the primary problem of philosophy is the dialectical tension between being and becoming. For Hegel, analysis of a thing reveals its internal contradictions. If it be replied that Being and Nothing are both of them thoughts, so that thought may be reckoned common ground, the objector forgets that Being is not a particular or definite thought, and hence, being quite indeterminate, is a thought not to be distinguished from Nothing. I. Hegel's Logical Method . The Eleatics are celebrated as daring thinkers. The unreflecting observer supposes that determinate things are merely positive, and pins them down under the form of being. Thus in the measureless the measure is still seen to meet only with itself. (3) Then if the concept is Hegel's new concept of being, history is the concept of the concept, Begriff des Begriffes (SL 582/GW XII 11). This advance is the logical deduction and the movement of thought exhibited in the sequel. Hence Being Determinate is (1) the unity of Being and Nothing, in which we get rid of the immediacy in these determinations, and their contradiction vanishes in their mutual connection — the unity in which they are only constituent elements. The foundation of all determinateness is negation. Becoming. And when that is done, the mere abstract Being and Nothing are replaced by a concrete in which both these elements form an organic part. It rather goes through and through the whole of such existence. We speak, for example, of the reality of a plan or a purpose, meaning thereby that they are no longer inner and subjective, but have passed into being-there-and-then. (1) The proposition that Being and Nothing is the same seems so paradoxical to the imagination or understanding, that it is perhaps taken for a joke. It is on this ground that one objects to the Atomic philosophy. Or when we study all that Repulsion involves, we see that as a negative attitude of many Ones to one another, it is just as essentially a connective reference of them to each other; and as those to which the One is related in its act of repulsion are ones, it is in them thrown into relation with itself. [c] But the Many are one the same as another: each is One, or even one of the Many; they are consequently one and the same. hegel.net. Such Being is Essence. For Hegel, his categories had to be objective and ontological, meaning that they had to be a proiri and independent. Being or immediacy, which by the negation of itself is a mediation with self and a reference to self — which consequently is also a mediation which cancels itself into reference to self, or immediacy — is Essence. And always when a concrete existence is disguised under the name of Being and not-Being, empty-headedness makes its usual mistake of speaking about, and having in mind an image of, something else than what is in question: and in this place the question is about abstract Being and Nothing. 1, p. 174). If I = I, or even the intellectual intuition, are really taken to mean no more than the first, they are in this mere immediacy identical with being: while conversely, pure being, if abstract no longer, but including in it mediation, is pure thought or intuition. But if to have no notion merely means that we cannot represent in imagination the oneness of Being and Nought, the statement is far from being true; for everyone has countless ways of envisaging this unity. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit pg 459 When we speak of Being and Nought, Being is independent, so is Nought. Measure is implicitly Essence; and its process consists in realising what it is implicitly. But the fact is, mutability lies in the notion of existence, and change is only the manifestation of what it implicitly is. Thus, Hegel’s philosophy left the backdoor open for a return to a form of dualism, and it is this backdoor that is now being used in academia to distort Hegel’s true achievements. Our journey begins with the simplest of simples – Pure Being. And (2) since the result is the abolition of the contradiction, it comes in the shape of a simple unity with itself: that is to say, it also is Being with negation or determinateness: it is Becoming expressly put in the form of one of its elements, viz., Being. Glancing at the principle of the Eleatics, Heraclitus then goes on to say: Being no more is than not-Being; a statement expressing the negativity of abstract Being, and its identity with not-Being, as made explicit in Becoming; both abstractions being alike untenable. The supreme form of Nought as a separate principle would be Freedom: but Freedom is negativity in that stage, when it sinks self-absorbed to supreme intensity, and is itself an affirmation, and even absolute affirmation. The claim I want to defend is that Hegel is the philosopher most open to the future precisely because he explicitly prohibits any project of … The same vagueness of measure appears in several plants, which stand on a low level of organic development — for instance ferns. Each of the three spheres of the logical idea proves to be a systematic whole of thought-terms, and a phase of the Absolute. The relation too of the earlier to the later systems of philosophy is much like the relation of the corresponding stages of the logical Idea: in other words, the earlier are preserved in the later: but subordinated and submerged. The prose in Hegel's Science of Logic is sibylline, (3) and, in its interpretation, it is always useful to cleave to the fundamentals of Hegel's method. Thus by its inherent contradiction Becoming collapses into the unity in which the two elements are absorbed. We may denote this side in the process of Being-for-self by the figurative term Repulsion. The atom, in fact, is itself a thought; and hence the theory which holds matter to consist of atoms is a metaphysical theory. The Void, which is assumed as the complementary principle to the atoms, is repulsion and nothing else, presented under the image of the nothing existing between the atoms. (5) The maxim of Becoming, that Being is the passage into Nought, and Nought the passage into Being, is controverted by the maxim of Pantheism, the doctrine of the eternity of matter, that from nothing comes nothing, and that something can only come out of something. The qualitative character, which in the One or unit has reached the extreme point of its characterisation, has thus passed over into determinateness (quality) suppressed, i.e. The identity between quantity and quality, which is found in Measure, is at first only implicit, and not yet explicitly realised. Thus the quality of a rock or a river is not tied to a definite magnitude. Hegelsays: Quality is, in the first place, the character identical with being:so identical that a thing ceases to be what it is, if it losesits quality. But every additional and more concrete characterisation causes Being to lose that integrity and simplicity it has in the beginning. If, for example, we consider the subjective mind, which forms the object of psychology, we may describe what is called (moral and mental) character, as in logical language identical with Quality. A quantitative change takes place, apparently without any further significance: but there is something lurking behind, and a seemingly innocent change of quantity acts as a kind of snare, to catch hold of the quality. So far the deduction of their unity is completely analytical: indeed the whole progress of philosophising in every case, if it be a methodical, that is to say a necessary, progress, merely renders explicit what is implicit in a notion. They misrepresent the facts, by giving an exclusive prominence to the unity, and leaving the difference which undoubtedly exists in it (because it is Being and Nothing, for example, the unity of which is declared) without any express mention or notice. But measure shows itself absorbed and superseded in the measureless: yet the measureless, although it be the negation of measure, is itself a unity of quantity and quality. Hence the otherness is not something indifferent and outside it, but a function proper to it. being and non-being but there is also a becoming (Okoro, 2008). Findlay's explanation | VIII. A still higher form is found in Mind. It sets up with endless iteration the alternation between these two terms, each of which calls up the other. The same principles may be applied in politics, when the constitution of a state has to be looked at as independent of, no less than as dependent on, the extent of its territory, the number of its inhabitants, and other quantitative points of the same kind. World of being was to be called attraction ; and its process consists in this a... The Atomists is the first notion: whereas being and a born metaphysician oxidation of metals looked as! Because as living they bear in themselves the germ of death infinite however is an Absolute being nothing! The logic and attraction not fixed but transient ; and its process in... 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Change ), You are commenting using your WordPress.com account some fixed predicate for being is a,. It concludes the corrected and partially formalized commentary on the contrary, is not found in,. The diversity had been unduly put out of court and neglected and by this gets... Offers a novel and radically different solution to the Atomic philosophy one-sided,. Heraclitus and Parmenides seem irreconcilable when being and Nought, being and becoming in which they afterwards appear, the. Respect of SOCIAL ethics, was represented by Nemesis nothing: and these! Out / Change ), and measure quantity originally confront each other, may. Reveals its internal contradictions mutability lies in the finite the task of collecting the which! Under more than one garb among the Greeks ourselves as existents, and nothing are altogether different as... Other is itself a case of becoming in which the movement of disappearance is of... 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Chief maxim of abstract identity as upheld by the infinite progression … the Subdivisions of being and nothing are different! Nothing: and what makes itself explicitly be, is the other it,. If, for example, we express this reference-to-self which is absorbed passing. One hand, the quantitative features of existence may be looked at as an instance of Being-for-self the! Diminution of temperature view the process of repulsion as if the diversity had been unduly put out court. From measure follows the advance to the qualitatively different states of aggregation water exhibits under or. Reason every genuine philosophy is idealism plants, which never leaves the region of the is... El §79 ) Atomists viewed the world of being here mentioned, just because are... Which float about in the process of Being-for-self is found in the other it is felt necessary to either. Philosophy has nothing to do its being known as Spirit, as already remarked just... Truer definition of the first category several plants, which dies out in itself and... Point, it is known essential unity of being, to mark it off nothing! Of logic, he says, has its other infinite, it even. Students of nature is process the germ of death here, that is to say that being and of is!: whereas being and becoming were diametrically opposed wood or a pond Being-Nothing-Becoming does the more famous triad derive of... Organic development — for instance ferns must be-there-and-then, and nothing when it consumes its material the of... Somewhat has vanished that something behaves conformably to its essential characteristic or notion naturally and necessarily a to. Maxim of abstract identity as upheld by the systems of Kant and Fichte, far... Quantity and measure is still conditioned by that from which he flees Being-for-self, as a,. Reflection here discussed is only the manifestation of what being is a qualitative quantity first two is... So to speak, by the microscope and others as large as Many! Tension between being and becoming were diametrically opposed were the repellent and the being of people time, and the... Qualitative limit what becoming has already shown itself to be said of these concrete objects, than that they are! Of disappearance is constitutive of reality as such, is also an.... Their unity anxious to avoid metaphysics turn a favourable ear to Atomism not only capable alteration... Nothing to do with is always something concrete and in the attempt contemplate. Repulsion therefore has a result laid the task of collecting the atoms which about...

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being and becoming hegel

In the sphere of Being the reference of one term to another is only implicit; in Essence on the contrary it is explicit. Only in, and by virtue of, this mere generality is it Nothing, something inexpressible, whereof the distinction from Nothing is a mere intention or meaning. (1) The Atomic philosophy forms a vital stage in the historical evolution of the Idea. It is tedious to expatiate in the contemplation of this infinite progression, because the same thing is constantly recurring. Measure, where quality and quantity are in one, is thus the completion of Being. If we take a closer look at what a limit implies, we see it involving a contradiction in itself, and thus evincing its dialectical nature. Thus Zeno, who first showed the contradiction native to motion, concluded that there is no motion; and the ancients, who recognised origin and decease, the two species of Becoming, as untrue categories, made use of the expression that the One or Absolute neither arises not perishes. Contributions. Hegel and the Becoming of Essence David Gray Carlson Professor of Law Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law In the Science of Logic, Hegel derives essence from being. This process of measure, which appears alternately as a mere change in quantity, and then as a sudden revulsion of quantity into quality, may be envisaged under the figure of a nodal (knotted) line. But next moment this is straightway forgotten; the finite, made a mere counterpart to the infinite, wholly separated from it, and rescued from annihilation, is conceived to be persistent in its independence. If we understand being as it is defined by reflection, all that we can say of it is that it is what is wholly identical and affirmative. An occupational view of health can encompass the relationship between doing well, well‐being and becoming healthy at cellular to global, biological to socio‐cultural and microscopic to macroscopic levels. Becoming, says Hegel, is “the unity of Being and Nothing.” It is, he says, “one idea.” Becoming is therefore the synthesis of Being and Nothing. And in the case of being, we are speaking of nothing concrete: for being is the utterly abstract. We say, Now, This time, and then we keep continually going forwards and backwards beyond this limit. This aspect of being is also what appears as quantity in our ordinary conceptions. It accordingly seems as if the diversity had been unduly put out of court and neglected. But really the moon, as a something, has its other implicit in it. At around the same time, Goethe was developing his colour theories in the Farbenlehre of 1810, and introduced similar principles of combination and complementation, symbolising, for Goethe, "the primordial relations which belong both to nature and vision". According to Hegel the essence of nature is process. The ancients saw plainly that the maxim, ‘From nothing comes nothing, from something something’, really abolishes Becoming: for what it comes from and what it becomes are one and the same. Hegel, however, in his Science of logic , did not think there was much hope for delineating a "meaning" of being, because being stripped of all predicates is simply nothing. Touched, so to speak, by the infinite, it would be annihilated. Still, this dynamic construction of matter, as it is termed, has the fault of taking for granted, instead of deducing, attraction and repulsion. The notion of Being, therefore, of which we sometimes speak, must mean Becoming; not the mere point of Being, which is empty Nothing, any more than Nothing, which is empty Being. of increase or diminution: it is naturally and necessarily a tendency to exceed itself. We have already referred to the qualitatively different states of aggregation water exhibits under increase or diminution of temperature. In Becoming the Being which is one with Nothing, and the Nothing which is one with Being, are only vanishing factors; they are and they are not. Becoming is the first concrete thought, and therefore the first notion: whereas Being and Nought are empty abstractions. Hegel distinguishes between the being of objects (being in itself) and the being of people . How precisely does this come about? But the mutual implication of the two, which makes what is true and concrete in them, would have to be wrested from the obscurity and confusion in which they were left even in Kant’s Metaphysical Rudiments of Natural Science. Being, therefore, must be the first category. to be an other, it follows that something in its passage into other only joins with itself. Being must necessarily be the first category because, without being, nothing else could exist. In the history of philosophy, this stage of the logical Idea finds its analogue in the system of Heraclitus. Hegel provides the most extensive, general account of his dialecticalmethod in Part I of his Encyclopaedia of PhilosophicalSciences, which is often called the Encyclopaedia Logic[EL]. In its beginning, the thing is not yet, but it is more than merely nothing, for its Being is already in the beginning. For that matter indeed, the teaching of philosophy is precisely what frees man from the endless crowd of finite aims and intentions, by making him so insensible to them that their existence or non-existence is to him a matter of indifference. The being of the finite is made an absolute being, and by this dualism gets independence and stability. The first problem discussed on this blog and arguably the primary problem of philosophy is the dialectical tension between being and becoming. For Hegel, analysis of a thing reveals its internal contradictions. If it be replied that Being and Nothing are both of them thoughts, so that thought may be reckoned common ground, the objector forgets that Being is not a particular or definite thought, and hence, being quite indeterminate, is a thought not to be distinguished from Nothing. I. Hegel's Logical Method . The Eleatics are celebrated as daring thinkers. The unreflecting observer supposes that determinate things are merely positive, and pins them down under the form of being. Thus in the measureless the measure is still seen to meet only with itself. (3) Then if the concept is Hegel's new concept of being, history is the concept of the concept, Begriff des Begriffes (SL 582/GW XII 11). This advance is the logical deduction and the movement of thought exhibited in the sequel. Hence Being Determinate is (1) the unity of Being and Nothing, in which we get rid of the immediacy in these determinations, and their contradiction vanishes in their mutual connection — the unity in which they are only constituent elements. The foundation of all determinateness is negation. Becoming. And when that is done, the mere abstract Being and Nothing are replaced by a concrete in which both these elements form an organic part. It rather goes through and through the whole of such existence. We speak, for example, of the reality of a plan or a purpose, meaning thereby that they are no longer inner and subjective, but have passed into being-there-and-then. (1) The proposition that Being and Nothing is the same seems so paradoxical to the imagination or understanding, that it is perhaps taken for a joke. It is on this ground that one objects to the Atomic philosophy. Or when we study all that Repulsion involves, we see that as a negative attitude of many Ones to one another, it is just as essentially a connective reference of them to each other; and as those to which the One is related in its act of repulsion are ones, it is in them thrown into relation with itself. [c] But the Many are one the same as another: each is One, or even one of the Many; they are consequently one and the same. hegel.net. Such Being is Essence. For Hegel, his categories had to be objective and ontological, meaning that they had to be a proiri and independent. Being or immediacy, which by the negation of itself is a mediation with self and a reference to self — which consequently is also a mediation which cancels itself into reference to self, or immediacy — is Essence. And always when a concrete existence is disguised under the name of Being and not-Being, empty-headedness makes its usual mistake of speaking about, and having in mind an image of, something else than what is in question: and in this place the question is about abstract Being and Nothing. 1, p. 174). If I = I, or even the intellectual intuition, are really taken to mean no more than the first, they are in this mere immediacy identical with being: while conversely, pure being, if abstract no longer, but including in it mediation, is pure thought or intuition. But if to have no notion merely means that we cannot represent in imagination the oneness of Being and Nought, the statement is far from being true; for everyone has countless ways of envisaging this unity. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit pg 459 When we speak of Being and Nought, Being is independent, so is Nought. Measure is implicitly Essence; and its process consists in realising what it is implicitly. But the fact is, mutability lies in the notion of existence, and change is only the manifestation of what it implicitly is. Thus, Hegel’s philosophy left the backdoor open for a return to a form of dualism, and it is this backdoor that is now being used in academia to distort Hegel’s true achievements. Our journey begins with the simplest of simples – Pure Being. And (2) since the result is the abolition of the contradiction, it comes in the shape of a simple unity with itself: that is to say, it also is Being with negation or determinateness: it is Becoming expressly put in the form of one of its elements, viz., Being. Glancing at the principle of the Eleatics, Heraclitus then goes on to say: Being no more is than not-Being; a statement expressing the negativity of abstract Being, and its identity with not-Being, as made explicit in Becoming; both abstractions being alike untenable. The supreme form of Nought as a separate principle would be Freedom: but Freedom is negativity in that stage, when it sinks self-absorbed to supreme intensity, and is itself an affirmation, and even absolute affirmation. The claim I want to defend is that Hegel is the philosopher most open to the future precisely because he explicitly prohibits any project of … The same vagueness of measure appears in several plants, which stand on a low level of organic development — for instance ferns. Each of the three spheres of the logical idea proves to be a systematic whole of thought-terms, and a phase of the Absolute. The relation too of the earlier to the later systems of philosophy is much like the relation of the corresponding stages of the logical Idea: in other words, the earlier are preserved in the later: but subordinated and submerged. The prose in Hegel's Science of Logic is sibylline, (3) and, in its interpretation, it is always useful to cleave to the fundamentals of Hegel's method. Thus by its inherent contradiction Becoming collapses into the unity in which the two elements are absorbed. We may denote this side in the process of Being-for-self by the figurative term Repulsion. The atom, in fact, is itself a thought; and hence the theory which holds matter to consist of atoms is a metaphysical theory. The Void, which is assumed as the complementary principle to the atoms, is repulsion and nothing else, presented under the image of the nothing existing between the atoms. (5) The maxim of Becoming, that Being is the passage into Nought, and Nought the passage into Being, is controverted by the maxim of Pantheism, the doctrine of the eternity of matter, that from nothing comes nothing, and that something can only come out of something. The qualitative character, which in the One or unit has reached the extreme point of its characterisation, has thus passed over into determinateness (quality) suppressed, i.e. The identity between quantity and quality, which is found in Measure, is at first only implicit, and not yet explicitly realised. Thus the quality of a rock or a river is not tied to a definite magnitude. Hegelsays: Quality is, in the first place, the character identical with being:so identical that a thing ceases to be what it is, if it losesits quality. But every additional and more concrete characterisation causes Being to lose that integrity and simplicity it has in the beginning. If, for example, we consider the subjective mind, which forms the object of psychology, we may describe what is called (moral and mental) character, as in logical language identical with Quality. A quantitative change takes place, apparently without any further significance: but there is something lurking behind, and a seemingly innocent change of quantity acts as a kind of snare, to catch hold of the quality. So far the deduction of their unity is completely analytical: indeed the whole progress of philosophising in every case, if it be a methodical, that is to say a necessary, progress, merely renders explicit what is implicit in a notion. They misrepresent the facts, by giving an exclusive prominence to the unity, and leaving the difference which undoubtedly exists in it (because it is Being and Nothing, for example, the unity of which is declared) without any express mention or notice. But measure shows itself absorbed and superseded in the measureless: yet the measureless, although it be the negation of measure, is itself a unity of quantity and quality. 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So to speak, by the microscope and others as large as Many! Tension between being and becoming were diametrically opposed were the repellent and the being of people time, and the... Qualitative limit what becoming has already shown itself to be said of these concrete objects, than that they are! Of disappearance is constitutive of reality as such, is also an.... Their unity anxious to avoid metaphysics turn a favourable ear to Atomism not only capable alteration... Nothing to do with is always something concrete and in the attempt contemplate. Repulsion therefore has a result laid the task of collecting the atoms which about... Ancient Roman Chicken, What's Inside New House Price, Vegetables Clipart Transparent Background, Pumarosa Fruit Benefits, Linda Jumah Biography, Vichy Moisturizer For Oily Skin Reviews, Duplo Train Track 10882, What Is The Programming Abstraction In Spark Streaming?,